Anatomy of a Child's Brain The brain can be divided into three areas, the cerebrum, the brainstem, and the cerebellum. Neurological Examination for Children Is it time for your baby to have a full physical exam? Your pediatrician might want to conduct a “neuro exam.” Don’t worry, this series of tests designed to evaluate your child’s nervous system is painless. Here’s what it entails. Overview of Nervous System Disorders in Children The most common symptoms of nervous system disorders in children include delays in developmental milestones, an increase or lack of growth in head size, and a lack of coordination. Overview of Diagnostic Tests for Nervous System Disorders in Children Evaluating and diagnosing damage to the nervous system can be complicated. Many of the same symptoms occur in different combinations among the different disorders, and many disorders do not have definitive causes, markers, or tests. Electroencephalogram (EEG) for Children An electroencephalogram (EEG) is a test that measures the electrical activity in the brain. An EEG measures brain waves through small button electrodes that are placed on your child's scalp. Spinal Tap or Lumbar Puncture A spinal tap, also called lumbar puncture, is done to measure the amount of pressure in the spinal canal and/or to remove a small amount of cerebral spinal fluid for testing.