Pap Test A Pap test is a way for your doctor to examine cells collected from the cervix for infection, inflammation, or cancer. Endometriosis Women with endometriosis develop tissue that looks and acts like endometrial tissue outside the uterus, usually on other reproductive organs inside the pelvis or in the abdominal cavity. Pelvic Pain Pelvic pain is a common complaint among women. Its nature and intensity may fluctuate, and its cause is often obscure. Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) This syndrome results from several related factors, including insulin resistance. This can lead to obesity and type 2 diabetes and affect fertility. Uterine Fibroids Some estimates say that 20 to 50 percent of women of reproductive age have fibroids, although not all are diagnosed. In most cases, fibroids are benign. Vulvitis Vulvitis is an inflammation of the vulva, the soft folds of skin outside the vagina. It is a symptom of a host of diseases, infections, injuries, and allergies. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) Untreated, PID can cause infertility and can also lead to chronic infection or even peritonitis. Cervicitis Cervicitis is an irritation of the cervix. Acute cervicitis can be caused an infection such as gonorrhea, chlamydia, or herpes. Chronic cervicitis is common in women following childbirth. Vaginitis Vaginitis is a common problem for women of all ages. Bacteria, yeast, viruses, and chemicals in creams or sprays can cause it. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) Urinary tract infections are a serious, but common, health problem that affects millions of people each year. Women are especially prone to urinary tract infections. Hysterectomy Hysterectomy is the surgical removal of the uterus. Different portions of the uterus, as well as other organs, may be removed at the same time.