Hand Pain and Problems Common hand problems include arthritis, carpal tunnel syndrome, and ganglion cysts. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Women develop carpal tunnel syndrome three times more frequently than men. It usually occurs only in adults. Overview of Hand Surgery Many different types of surgeries can be performed on the hand, depending on the underlying cause of the problem. Diagnosing Hand Conditions In some cases, a diagnosis can be made simply based on a physical examination. In other cases, though, tests may be needed to help confirm the diagnosis. Dupuytren's Contracture This disease usually begins with a thickening of the skin in the palm of the hand. This may develop into a hard lump or thick band that eventually causes the fingers to contract. Carpal Tunnel Release Carpal tunnel release is a surgery that’s used to treat and potentially heal the painful condition known as carpal tunnel syndrome.