Understanding Prostate Health As part of the male reproductive system, the prostate gland secretes a slightly alkaline fluid that forms part of the semen, a substance that carries sperm. Prostate Tests & Procedures If your doctor suspects cancer, you may need a prostate biopsy, in which tissue samples are removed to determine if cancer or other abnormal cells are present. Benign Prostate Problems Benign prostatic hyperplasia, or BPH, is the most common non-cancerous prostate problem. It can cause discomfort and difficulty urinating. About Prostate Cancer Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men, but it can be successfully treated if found early. Prostate Cancer Treatment Treatment may include surgery, radiation, hormone therapy, or chemotherapy. In some instances, "expectant therapy" is the route to take.