Facts About Diabetes Diabetes affects the way the body metabolizes, or uses, digested food to make glucose, the main source of fuel for the body. Diabetes Statistics Looking for vital diabetes facts and figures? Here are statistics for both patients and consumers. Anatomy of the Endocrine System The endocrine system includes not only the pancreas—the organ involved in the development of diabetes—but also the pituitary, thyroid, and other glands. Diagnosing Diabetes If you're older than 45, you should be tested for diabetes. If you are younger, you should be tested if you are at high risk.