Overview The two most common types of vaginal cancer are squamous cell cancer and adenocarcinoma. Both types occur most frequently in older women. Understanding Your Diagnosis Not all women with vaginal cancer have symptoms. Your doctor or gynecologist may find vaginal cancer during a routine visit to have a pelvic exam and Pap test. Deciding on Treatment Your treatment plan depends on your age, overall health, and the extent of the disease. You may need surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these. Managing Side Effects Side effects are common during cancer treatment. You may have mild side effects or more severe side effects that interfere with your daily activities. Your health care team will help to ease any side effects that you experience. Prevention and Screening Factors that may increase your risk for vaginal cancer include smoking, infection with the human papillomavirus, and having cancer of the vulva or cervix.