Anatomy of a Child's Brain The brain can be divided into three areas, the cerebrum, the brainstem, and the cerebellum. Brain Tumors in Children Brain tumors are the most common solid tumors in children. Brain tumors that occur in infants and children are very different from adult brain tumors, both in terms of the type of cells and the responsiveness to treatment. Statistics About Brain Tumors The outlook varies according to the type and location of the tumor, but about three out of four patients with childhood brain tumors survive longer than five years. Overview of Diagnostic Tests for Nervous System Disorders in Children Evaluating and diagnosing damage to the nervous system can be complicated. Many of the same symptoms occur in different combinations among the different disorders, and many disorders do not have definitive causes, markers, or tests. Neurological Examination for Children Is it time for your baby to have a full physical exam? Your pediatrician might want to conduct a “neuro exam.” Don’t worry, this series of tests designed to evaluate your child’s nervous system is painless. Here’s what it entails. Spinal Tap or Lumbar Puncture A spinal tap, also called lumbar puncture, is done to measure the amount of pressure in the spinal canal and/or to remove a small amount of cerebral spinal fluid for testing.